Spring is in full force here in sunny Southern Texas, and with Spring comes thoughts of fertility in all it's forms. This is the time of new life; many animals are birthing their young about now, plants are sprouting, and the energy of the Earth is revitalized.
The year is young, and this is the time of the Maiden and her counter-part, the youthful Sun God. There are many, many deities associated with Springtime and fertility; fertility of animals, plants and people.
There is evidence to suggest that historically our Pagan ancestors performed fertility rituals in order to ensure the continuation of the herds and flocks, abundance of agricultural crops, and, of course, their own reproduction. Such rituals would have included blessing the fields and animals, and perhaps a reenactment of the mythos in which the Goddess and God consummate their relationship.
From these ancient rituals, we now have many symbols of fertility, such as grain, corn, rabbits and eggs. There are myths and stories, particularly relating to Ostara and the Spring Equinox to help us to understand the vital role of fertility in our lives and the continuance of the Earth and life here.
There are many, many gods and goddesses of fertility. There are god/desses concerned with people, women's fertility, pregnancy and child birth, men's virility, animals and crops.
Solar deities are often considered to have fertility aspects because of the sun and it's regenerative properties and that it provides sustenance for plants.
Lunar deities are connected with women's menstrual cycles, and therefore have a prominent role in fertility matters.
And, of course, deities associated with water are commonly believed to be concerned with fertility due to the connection with birth waters.
Following is a chart listing many deities from many cultures, who are considered to be fertility gods and goddesses. The list is by no means complete, but should give a good general idea of whom to call on for a particular purpose relating to fertility, reproduction, pregnancy, childbirth, prolification of herd/flock animals or health and abundance in agricultural farming or even gardening.
(*Properties below are as related to fertility and are not comprehensive of all aspects of a deity's domain)
Properties: health and disease in girls and women, virginity, fertility, childbirth
Properties: Earth Mother
Properties: agriculture and fertility of the earth
Properties: women, marriage, childbirth, heirs
Properties: childbirth, midwifery
Properties: goddess of midwives
Properties: lunar goddess concerned with the birthing of all animals
Properties: god of sheperds, herds and flocks
Properties: god of fertility & male genitalia, protects livestock, fruit plants & gardens
Properties: fertility of the soil
Properties: water and fertility
Properties: afterlife and the underworld agency which grants all life
Properties: fertility, the river
Properties: god of creation
Properties: god of fertility and reproduction
Properties: goddess of fertility
Properties: goddess of Nature, the Earth, Fire and fertility
Properties: horned god of fertility
Properties: male virility
Properties: marital felicity and devotion, fertility
Properties: goddess of the Earth and the aspect of Lakshmi concerned with fertility
Deity: Lajja Gauri
Properties: abundance and fertility
Properties: snake goddess of fertility
Properties: lunar god of fertility
Properties: fertility god and childbirth
Properties: pregnancy and childbirth
Properties: Earth goddess, motherhood, pregnant women and animals, marriage
Properties: male fertility
Properties: fertility and associated with vegetation
Properties: embodies the divine phallus
Properties: marriage, infants and children